Resilient Information Systems Security

Hazard Driven Threat Modelling for Cyber Physical Systems

Adversarial actors have shown their ability to infiltrate enterprise networks deployed around Cyber Physical Systems (CPSs) through social engineering, credential stealing and file-less infections. When inside, they can gain enough privileges to maliciously call legitimate APIs and apply unsafe control actions to degrade the system performance and undermine its safety. Our work lies at the intersection of security and safety, and aims to understand dependencies among security, reliability and safety in CPS/IoT. We present a methodology to perform hazard driven threat modelling and impact assessment in the context of CPSs. The process starts from the analysis of behavioural, functional and […]

Procedural Noise Adversarial Examples for Black-Box Attacks on Deep Convolutional Networks (CCS ’19)

Our paper on procedural noise adversarial examples has been accepted to the 26th ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security (ACM CCS ’19). official: https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=3345660 code: https://github.com/kenny-co/procedural-advml Abstract: Deep Convolutional Networks (DCNs) have been shown to be vulnerable to adversarial examples—perturbed inputs specifically designed to produce intentional errors in the learning algorithms at test time. Existing input-agnostic adversarial perturbations exhibit interesting visual patterns that are currently unexplained. In this paper, we introduce a structured approach for generating Universal Adversarial Perturbations (UAPs) with procedural noise functions. Our approach unveils the systemic vulnerability of popular DCN models like Inception v3 and YOLO […]

Towards More Practical Software-based Attestation

Our paper Towards More Practical Software-based Attestation has been accepted for publication by Elsevier’s Computer Networks Journal. Authors: Rodrigo Vieira Steiner, Emil Lupu Abstract: Software-based attestation promises to enable the integrity verification of untrusted devices without requiring any particular hardware. However, existing proposals rely on strong assumptions that hinder their deployment and might even weaken their security. One of such assumptions is that using the maximum known network round-trip time to define the attestation timeout allows all honest devices to reply in time. While this is normally true in controlled environments, it is generally false in real deployments and especially so in a scenario […]

A Formal Approach to Analyzing Cyber-Forensics Evidence

Erisa Karafili’s paper “A Formal Approach to Analyzing Cyber-Forensics Evidence” was accepted at the European Symposium on Research in Computer Security (ESORICS) 2018. This work is part of the AF-Cyber Project, and was a joint collaboration with King’s College London and the University of Verona. Title: A Formal Approach to Analyzing Cyber-Forensics Evidence Authors: Erisa Karafili, Matteo Cristani, Luca Viganò Abstract: The frequency and harmfulness of cyber-attacks are increasing every day, and with them also the amount of data that the cyber-forensics analysts need to collect and analyze. In this paper, we propose a formal analysis process that allows an […]

WSNs Under Attack! How Bad Is It? Evaluating Connectivity Impact Using Centrality Measures

Our paper WSNs Under Attack! How Bad Is It? Evaluating Connectivity Impact Using Centrality Measures has been presented at the Living in the Internet of Things: A PETRAS, IoTUK & IET Conference, Forum & Exhibition. Authors: Rodrigo Vieira Steiner, Martín Barrère, Emil C. Lupu Abstract: We propose a model to represent the health of WSNs that allows us to evaluate a network’s ability to execute its functions. Central to this model is how we quantify the importance of each network node. As we focus on the availability of the network data, we investigate how well different centrality measures identify the significance of each node for the […]

Label Sanitization against Label Flipping Poisoning Attacks

Andrea Paudice, Luis Muñoz-González, Emil C. Lupu. 2018. Label Sanitization against Label Flipping Poisoning Attacks. arXiv preprint arXiv:1803.00992. Many machine learning systems rely on data collected in the wild from untrusted sources, exposing the learning algorithms to data poisoning. Attackers can inject malicious data in the training dataset to subvert the learning process, compromising the performance of the algorithm producing errors in a targeted or an indiscriminate way. Label flipping attacks are a special case of data poisoning, where the attacker can control the labels assigned to a fraction of the training points. Even if the capabilities of the attacker […]

Ensuring the resilience of WSN to Malicious Data Injections through Measurements Inspection

Malicious data injections pose a severe threat to the systems based on Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) since they give the attacker control over the measurements, and on the system’s status and response in turn. Malicious measurements are particularly threatening when used to spoof or mask events of interest, thus eliciting or preventing desirable responses. Spoofing and masking attacks are particularly difficult to detect since they depict plausible behaviours, especially if multiple sensors have been compromised and collude to inject a coherent set of malicious measurements. Previous work has tackled the problem through measurements inspection, which analyses the inter-measurements correlations induced […]

Detection of Adversarial Training Examples in Poisoning Attacks through Anomaly Detection

Andrea Paudice, Luis Muñoz-González, Andras Gyorgy, Emil C. Lupu. 2018. Detection of Adversarial Training Examples in Poisoning Attacks through Anomaly Detection. arXiv preprint arXiv:1802.03041.    Data poisoning is one of the most relevant security threats against machine learning systems, where attackers can subvert the learning process by injecting malicious samples in the training data. Recent work in adversarial machine learning has shown that the so-called optimal attack strategies can successfully poison linear classifiers, degrading the performance of the system dramatically after compromising a small fraction of the training dataset. In this paper we propose a defence mechanism to mitigate the effect […]

Determining Resilience Gains From Anomaly Detection for Event Integrity in Wireless Sensor Networks

Vittorio P. Illiano, Andrea Paudice, Luis Muñoz-González, and Emil C. Lupu. 2018. Determining Resilience Gains From Anomaly Detection for Event Integrity in Wireless Sensor Networks. ACM Trans. Sen. Netw. 14, 1, Article 5 (February 2018), 35 pages. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1145/3176621 Abstract: Measurements collected in a wireless sensor network (WSN) can be maliciously compromised through several attacks, but anomaly detection algorithms may provide resilience by detecting inconsistencies in the data. Anomaly detection can identify severe threats to WSN applications, provided that there is a sufficient amount of genuine information. This article presents a novel method to calculate an assurance measure for the network […]

Improving Data Sharing in Data Rich Environments

The paper “Improving Data Sharing in Data Rich Environments” was accepted at the IEEE Big Data International Workshop on Policy-based Autonomic Data Governance (PADG), part of the 15th IEEE International Conference on Big Data (Big Data 2017), December 11-14, 2017, Boston, MA, USA. This work was done in collaboration with our partners (BAE Systems, IBM UK and IBM US) from the DAIS International Technology Alliance (ITA). The paper can be found here. Authors: Erisa Karafili, Emil C. Lupu, Alan Cullen, Bill Williams, Saritha Arunkumar, Seraphin Calo Abstract: The increasing use of big data comes along with the problem of ensuring correct […]